In this article I want to talk about what a glycemic index, slow and fast carbohydrates. The list of products, the table of glycemic indexes will help you to understand this issue. Processes in the body can not be carried out without energy, the main sources of which are glucose and glycogen. Carbohydrates are able to increase blood glucose (hyperglycemia), each of which has its own glycemic index and a different rate of cleavage. Therefore, they are classified as fast carbohydrates and slow carbohydrates.
What is the glycemic index
The glycemic index (GI) shows the rate of digestion of carbohydrate and its conversion into glucose. The reference unit of GI glucose is equal to 100%. With it, the indicators of other products are compared. The glycemic index depends on:
- type of carbohydrate,
- the amount of fiber in the carbohydrate,
- how the product is processed.
The highest GI in rapidly cleavable carbohydrates. Below is a table of glycemic indices.
What happens when you use slow and fast carbohydrates
The portal vein delivers monosaccharides to the liver for the subsequent synthesis of glycogen, which is the energy reserve of the body. The only organ in which there is an enzymatic conversion of glycogen into glucose and its release into the blood. To other organs and tissues, glucose comes directly from the blood. Regardless of the amount of glucose consumed by the tissues, the amount of it in the blood should remain within the range of 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / l. Maintenance of this level is regulated by a single hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas. With its lack, the liver and muscles can not use glucose, despite its high content in the blood.
Fast and slow carbohydrates.
Products that have a high glycemic index (above 50) , increase blood glucose levels dramatically. In response, insulin production increases. And the glucose level drops to normal. Insulin also distributes glucose through the tissues, providing them with fast energy. Unused sugar accumulates in fatty tissues. Insulin prevents the transformation of adipose tissue back into glucose. These products include fast carbohydrates, the list of products is quite extensive. This is primarily all of the confectionery and flour products from white flour, alcoholic beverages, potatoes, rice, corn. Products with a low glycemic index (below 50)split slowly. They stay in the stomach for a long time, giving a feeling of satiety. Accordingly, there is no abrupt jump in the level of glucose in the blood. Hence the name – slow carbohydrates. This category includes products from coarse-grained cereals, starch-containing, fruits, vegetables (except potatoes), legumes, greens. Their advantage is that they are rich in fiber and poor in glucose. The list of products containing slow carbohydrates, a table on our website will help to determine the correct choice of products.
When what carbohydrates are
In daily activities, the body needs both fast and slow energy. It is impossible to single out only useful carbohydrates, the list of products useful to the body will contain both fast and slow carbohydrates. But it is a mistake to say that the simpler the carbohydrate, the faster the blood glucose level will rise. The structure and composition of the carbohydrate affects the rate of enzymatic cleavage, and not the metabolism of glucose. Regardless of which product has been cleaved, the peak glucose level in the blood will come in 30 minutes. At the same time, the pancreas will begin to produce insulin necessary for transporting glucose to organs and tissues. With an overabundance of carbohydrates with high GI in nutrition, more insulin will be produced. What will lead to “storage” in the form of fat depositsexcess glucose. With a lack of provision of the body (especially the brain) with glucose in the liver, the process of glucose synthesis from glycogen begins. By the same principle, the muscles are provided with energy for short-term intensive work. The minimum daily intake of carbohydrates is 50-60 grams. The required amount in the daily ration is 400-500 grams. A reduced amount will lead to a sharp disruption of metabolic processes and the depletion of muscle tissue because the synthesis of glucose begins from pyruvic acid, which is formed by the breakdown of tissue proteins into amino acids. With enough carbohydrates, amino acids are used as an energy source to an insignificant extent. Excess intake of carbohydrates will lead to obesity. This is the first step to diabetes mellitus of the second type.
How to eat properly
The glycemic index is changed during the preparation of products. And not always downwards. With prolonged and deep heat treatment of carbohydrate, it rises. Example: boiled potatoes – GI is 70; instant potato mash – 90. When processing carbohydrates rich in coarse fiber with a maximum degree of its conservation, the glycemic index decreases. It is difficult to sometimes calculate daily GI when mixing different products: proteins, different in the structure of carbohydrates, fats. In this case, for the initial indicator should take the product that is most in the diet. The division into “bad” and “good” carbohydrates is very conditional. After all, not only the quality, but also the amount of carbohydrate that has arrived should be taken into account when compiling a menu or diet. It is incorrect to consider, that consumption in an unreasonable amount of carbohydrates with a low glycemic index will lead to weight loss. The level of sugar in the blood with this approach can be raised above the norm.But, uniquely food with a preference for vegetables, rice, beans, white meat, fish, eggs, that is, products with a low glycemic index, is more useful than frequent snacks on the go with buns, cakes, sandwiches, cookies.Add here the stress, the inevitable companion of the modern rhythm of life, and the system of interaction of insulin-glucose is disrupted, which leads to a hypoglycemic state (GGS) in which more glucose disappears from the blood than is required for physiological processes due to excessive production of insulin. A person becomes sluggish, there is weakness, dizziness, sweating, drowsiness, the heart rhythm is disturbed. This condition is also called the syndrome of unstable blood sugar, leading to insulin resistance. Table of glycemic indexes will help to calculate the daily amount of glucose in food. The intake of carbohydrates before exercise is allowed when pumping muscles. With a set of exercises for weight loss, a lack of carbohydrates will cause fat to burn to provide the body with glucose. The corresponding tables will help you choose a dinner, which only replenishes the energy, but does not reverse the deposition of glucose into adipose tissue. Sleep drains carbohydrate stores due to a long break between meals. Therefore, in the morning it is advisable to have breakfast with complex, not simple carbohydrates. With the help of tables you can make up your diet according to the energy costs and goals of the gym. You will eat healthy and healthy. From the above, it should be taken into account, to what result such combinations of products will result.
- A lot of carbohydrates with high GI will lead to increased sugar content in the blood.
- Few carbohydrates with high GI will lead to a constant feeling of hunger, but the level of glucose will be normal.
- Few carbohydrates with low GI will give the same result as the previous combination, but the feeling of hunger will not be so strong.
- Many carbohydrates with low GI along with proteins can be considered the most optimal combination